|Simple yarns can be broadly divided into single, ply, cord, and rope yarns. They are made from monofilament, multifilament, spun, or a combination of filament and spun yarns. Single yarns are twisted together to form ply yarns. Ply yarns are then twisted to form a cord, and the cord is then twisted to form a rope. The direction of the twist typically changes at each step.|
|Novelty yarns, typically made of two or more strands, are produced to provide decorative surface effects. Based on its purpose, each strand is referred to as base/core, effect, or binder. The base/core strand provides the structure and strength; the effect strand creates decorative detail such as knots and loops, and the binder is used to tie the effect yarn to the base yarn if binding is necessary. A wide variety of novelty yarns are produced using different techniques and types of fibers and strands. The terminology as well as the classification for novelty yarns varies considerably. Given below are some of the commonly used novelty yarn categories:|
Slub and Thick-and-Thin yarns have thick areas that result from a change in the yarn twist during the spinning process. Slub yarns are produced with staple yarns, whereas thick-and-thin yarns are produced with filament yarns. Manufactured using a single or ply yarn, the size of the slub or thick section varies depending on the desired effect. The slub cannot be removed without damaging the yarn.
Nub, Knot, and Spot yarns are generally produced with two strands of yarn. One strand serves as the base yarn and the other as the effect yarn. Produced at regular or irregular intervals, the nub or spot is created when the effect yarn is twisted several times around the base. Knots are visible in knot yarns. The nub, spot, or knot cannot be pulled out from the yarn.
In Flock, Flake, or Seed yarn, extra fibers are inserted to give the yarn an irregular effect. These fibers can be pulled out from the yarn.
Bouclé and Loop yarns are typically made of three strands. The effect yarn forms loops at regular or irregular intervals around the base yarn. The third strand, called the binder, is used to bind the effect yarn to the base yarn.
Chenille is a pile yarn in which the pile fibers are perpendicular to the base yarn.
|Covered yarn is “a type of composite yarn made by wrapping a spun or filament yarn around a core of bundled fibers or another yarn. The core may also be an elastic yarn such as spandex” (Source- Dictionary of Fibers and Textile Technology). Elastomeric filaments are commonly covered with strands of other fibers to produce stretch yarns for hosiery and undergarments. Double-covered yarns are produced by wrapping two strands around the core yarn. For example, an elastomeric strand is wrapped with a multifilament strand and then a metallic strand to produce a yarn that has the stretch of an elastomeric yarn and the appearance of a metallic yarn.|
Core-spun yarn is “made by twisting fibers around a filament or a previously spun yarn, thus concealing the core. Core-spun yarns are used in sewing thread, blankets, and socks, and also to obtain novelty effects in fabrics” (Source- Dictionary of Fibers and Textile Technology).